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湖南成人高考高起点英语误用讲解:被动语态

 

 1、中文:他们结婚两年了。

 
(误)They have married for two years.
 
(正)They have been married for two years.(表示已婚状态的持续,要用完成时的被动式。)
 
2、中文:他被所有学生嘲笑。
 
(误)He was laughed by all the pupils.
 
(正)He was laughed at by all the pupils.(不及物动词+介词=及物动词,变被动语态时介词不能省略。)
 
3、中文:英语难学。
 
(误)English is difficult to be learned.
 
(正)English is difficult to learn.(英语难学=学英语难,也可说It's difficult to learn English.原句的主语实际上是不定式的逻辑宾语,不定式要用主动形式。)
 
4、中文:汤姆问我这些岛屿是否属于美国。
 
(误)Tom asked me if these islands are belonged to America.
 
(正)Tom asked me if these islands belonged to America.
 
5、中文:中国发生了很大变化。
 
(误)Great changes have been taken place in China.
 
(正)Great changes have taken place in China.
 
6、中文:战争于一九三七年爆发。
 
(误)The war was broken out in 1937.
 
(正)The war broke out in 1937.(take place,break out,happen,belong to等不及物动词或短语动词没有被动语态形式。)
 
7、中文:我看不清黑板。也许你需要检查你的眼睛。
 
(误)I can't see the blackboard very well.Perhaps you need to examine your eyes.
 
(正)I can't see the blackboard very well.Perhaps you need to have your eyes examined.(表示使某物被别人…,通常使用have或get+物+过去分词表示。)
 
8、中文:他命令马上开始工作。
 
(误)He ordered the work to start at once.
 
(正)He ordered the work to be started at once.(不定式作宾语补语时,若与宾语是被动关系,要用不定式的被动形式。)
 
9、中文:他试图不介入政治。
 
(误)He tried not to have mixed up in politics.
 
(正)He tried not to get mixed up in politics.(get作系动词,可代替be,后接过去分词表示被动,have无此功能。)
 
10、中文:据说他很富有。
 
(误)They say him to have been rich.
 
(正)He is said to have been rich.(say后不可接不定式,但它的被动语态后可接不定式。)
 
11、中文:那人被认为是个傻子。
 
(误)The man thought to be a fool.
 
(正)The man was thought to be a fool.(主语是动作的承受者而不是发出者,用被动语态。)
 

 

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